Historians discussed the experiences of both enslaved and free blacks during the Civil War. Several showed pictures during their presentations. After the presentations were given, Professor Horton chaired a panel discussion.
James McPherson talked about “Slavery, Freedom, and the Union Navy;” David Blight talked about “John Washington: How, When, Where and Why Emancipation Happened;” Dwight Pitcaithley talked about “Addressing the Causes of the Civil War in Public History;” Harold Holzer talked about “The Image of the Emancipation Proclamation in Art and Memory;” and Jean Fagan Yellin talked about “Harriet Jacobs in the Refugee Camps.”
"The Tough Stuff of American History and Memory" was the afternoon session of the Virginia Sesquicentennial Civil War Commission 2010 Signature Conference “Race, Slavery and the Civil War: The Tough Stuff of American History and Memory.” The second of seven annual conferences, it was held at the L. Douglas Wilder Performing Arts Center of Norfolk State University.